Targeted therapy is essentially a type of medication, which is used by cancer specialists in Kolkata to stop the growth of cancerous cells. According to Dr. Sayan Paul, who is one of the best neuro, Gastrointestinal, breast and gynae oncologists in India , this therapy works by interfering with the specific targeted molecules (i.e., specific markers that occur as cancer cells). That is the reason why, targeted therapy can specifically kill only the harmful cancerous cells while sparing the normal or healthy cells.
Targeted therapy can be categorized into two types, including small molecule drugs and monoclonal antibodies.
Small molecule drugs
Drugs known as small-molecule drugs work by blocking the process of multiplication and spread of cancer cells. Angiogenesis inhibitors are an example of a form of targeted therapy. Some other examples of small-molecule drugs include:
• Imatinib mesylate is administered for gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).
• Gefitinib is used for targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) that is present on many cancerous cells. Lung cancer specialists in Kolkata use it for non-small cell lung cancer. EGFR is often overexpressed in the cancerous cells of solid tumours, including the lungs and breast cancers.
• Erlotinib also keeps epidermal growth factor receptor in check, and works in a similar manner as gefitinib. Research has shown that Erlotinib increases the survival rates in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer patients when used as a form of second line therapy.
• Bortezomib is an apoptosis-inducing drug, which causes death of the cancerous cells by interfering with their proteins. It is approved by the oncologists in Kolkata for the treatment of multiple myeloma, which has not responded well to other treatments.
• There are many more targeted therapy available .
There are several manoclonal antibodies that are under development and a few have already been licenced by the drug agencies and health associations. Some examples of the licenced monoclonal antibodies are:
• Rituximab targets CD20 protein that is found on B cells and is used for the treatment of non Hodgkin lymphoma.
• Trastuzumab targets the Her2/neu receptor expressed in different types of breast cancer.
• Bevacizumab targets the circulating VEGF ligand and is used for the treatment of breast, non-small cell lung, and colon cancer. Dr. Paul also recommends its use for the treatment of brain tumours.
• Cetuximab targets the epidermal growth factor receptor and has been used for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and colon cancer.